Regulatory Agency: National Communications Authority (NCA)

GDP – telecommunications share of GDP: Ghana’s telecommunications sector contributed 7.4% of the GDP in 2020, up from 6.9% in 2019. The sector employs about 100,000 people and provides services to over 41 million subscribers.

Regulatory Journey and Evolution of the Industry: Ghana’s telecommunications industry has undergone several reforms and developments since the liberalization of the sector in 1994. The main regulatory body is the National Communications Authority (NCA), which oversees the licensing, regulation, and monitoring of telecommunications operators and service providers. The main policy framework is the National Digital Strategy 2020-2023 (NDS), which aims to promote the development and use of ICTs for socio-economic development. The main operators in the market are MTN, the leading mobile and fixed-line operator, Vodafone, the second-largest mobile and fixed-line operator, AirtelTigo, the third-largest mobile operator, Glo, the fourth-largest mobile operator, and Surfline, a fixed wireless broadband operator. The main services offered by the operators include voice, SMS, data, internet, and mobile money.

Ghana has made significant progress in its digital transformation journey, especially in the areas of mobile connectivity, e-commerce growth, digital payments, ICT infrastructure, startups and innovation, digital skills and education, and government digital initiatives. Some of the key indicators that reflect the extent to which digital technologies facilitate economic, social and public (e-government) interactions are:

  • Mobile Connectivity: The prevalence of mobile phone usage, especially smartphones, reflects the accessibility of digital services. The mobile penetration rate was 131.9% in 2020, with 41 million active mobile subscribers, according to the NCA. The smartphone penetration rate was 50% in 2020, with 15.6 million smartphone users, according to the GSMA. The main drivers for mobile connectivity are the low cost of SIM cards, the availability of mobile money services, and the increasing demand for social media and online entertainment.

  • E-commerce Growth: The volume and value of online transactions and e-commerce activities demonstrate the extent to which digital platforms are used for buying and selling goods and services. The e-commerce market size was estimated at $500 million in 2020, with a growth rate of 40% per year, according to the E-commerce Foundation. The main e-commerce platforms are Jumia, Tonaton, Zoobashop, and Hubtel. The main challenges for e-commerce growth are the low level of trust, the high cost of delivery, the lack of digital payment options, and the low awareness of online shopping.

  • Digital Payments: The adoption of digital payment methods, such as mobile wallets and online banking, indicates the shift from traditional to digital financial transactions. The percentage of adults with an account at a financial institution or a mobile money service provider increased from 58.4% in 2014 to 76.4% in 2017, according to the World Bank. The percentage of adults who made or received digital payments in the past year increased from 37.9% in 2014 to 67.5% in 2017, according to the World Bank. The main digital payment platforms are MTN Mobile Money, Vodafone Cash, AirtelTigo Money, and G-Money. The main challenges for digital payments are the low level of financial inclusion, the high cost of transactions, the lack of interoperability, and the regulatory barriers.

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